LA CROSSE HISTORY
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THE LA CROSSE AREA'S HISTORY, DIGITIZED

Citing Archival Sources


How do you cite archival sources?

There are different styles of citing sources. The following citations follow The Chicago Manual of Style standards. Two other common citation styles are APA and MLA, but they are not included in this guide because historians mostly use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources. If you are a student, please talk to your instructor if you are unsure of what style to use.

Index to this Citation Guide:

Each type of source has a template of a bibliographic citation, a footnote, and a subsequent footnote. There are templates for both for materials from the La Crosse Public Library Archives and from UWL Murphy Library Special Collections & ARC.

PRIMARY SOURCES


Archival Collections


Physical Manuscripts

Area Research Center (ARC) Collections

* For manuscript items, quotation marks are used only for specific titles (e.g., “Trane Pension Plan”), but not for generic names, such as report or minutes. Generic names are capitalized if part of a formal heading actually appearing on the manuscript, lower-cased if merely descriptive (Chicago Manual of Style, 14.234).

Bibliographic

for an entire collection:

[Collection Title]. [Call Number]. [Name of Current Owner (if applicable)]. Housed at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

for one item from a collection:

[Name of Creator (last name first if person)]. [Name of Item(s)]. [Date(s) of Item (if applicable)]. [Collection Title], [Call Number], [Box Number], [Folder Number]. [Name of Current Owner (if applicable)]. Housed at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Footnote

1. [Name of Creator (first name first if person)], [Name of Item], [Date of Item (if applicable)], [Collection Title]. [Call Number], [Name of Current Owner (if applicable)], housed at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Last Name of Creator], [Name of Item], [Date of Item (if applicable)], [Collection Title].

* For the date in the footnotes, cite the specific date of the entry/material you are referencing.

• • •

Murphy Library Collections

Bibliographic

for an entire collection:

[Collection Title]. [Call Number]. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

for one item from a collection:

[Name of Creator (last name first if person)]. [Name of Item(s)]. [Date(s) of Item (if applicable)]. [Collection Title], [Call Number], [Box Number], [Folder Number]: [Folder Name]. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Footnote

1. [Name of Creator (first name first if person)], [Name of Item], [Date of Item (if applicable)], [Collection Title], [Call Number], [Box Number], [Folder Number]: [Folder Name], University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Name of Creator (last name only if person)], [Name of Item], [Date of Item (if applicable)], [Collection Title].

• • •

La Crosse Public Library Collections

Bibliographic

[Identification or Name of Item], [Name of Collection], [Location of Creator], [Call Number], La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, WI.

Footnote

1. [Identification or Name of Item], [Name of Collection], [Location of Creator], [Call Number], La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, WI.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Identification or Name of Item], [Name of Collection], [Call Number].

• • •

Digital Manuscripts

Bibliographic

[Name of Creator (last name first if person)]. [Name of Item(s)]. [Date(s) of Item (if applicable)]. [Collection Title], [Call Number], [Box Number], [Folder Number]. [Name of Physical Repository (if different than creator of website)]. [Name of Digital Collection], [Name of Creator of Website or Online Repository]. Accessed [Date of Access]. [permanent URL to resource].

Footnote

1. [Name of Creator (first name first if person)], [Name of Item], [Date(s) of Item (if applicable)], [Collection Title], [Call Number], [Box Number], [Folder Number], [Name of Physical Repository (if different than website)], [Name of Digital Collection], [Name of Website or Online Repository], accessed [Date of Access], [permanent URL to resource].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Name of Creator (last name only if person)], [Name of Item], [Name of Digital Collection].




La Crosse City Directories


Bibliographic

Compiled by [if applicable, names of compilers (last name first)]. La Crosse City Directory, [year in italics (as part of title)]. [City of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published].

Footnote

1. Compiled by [if applicable,names of compilers (first name first)], La Crosse City Directory, [year in italics (as part of title)] ([City of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published]), [page number(s)].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [If applicable, last name only of compilers], La Crosse City Directory, [year in italics (as part of title)], [page number].




Clipping Files, Ephemera Files, and Vertical Files


Murphy Library Materials

Vertical Files

Bibliographic

[Creator of Item from file (last name first, if applicable)]. [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"]. [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. In vertical file [Name of Vertical File]. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Footnote

1. [Creator of Item from file (first name first, if applicable)], [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], in vertical file [Name of Vertical File]. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Murphy Library Special Collections and Area Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Creator of Item from file (last name only, if applicable)], [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].

• • •

La Crosse Public Library Materials

Clipping File

Bibliographic

[Author of Article (last name first, if applicable)]. "[Name of Article]." [Publication], [Date of article]. In clipping file [Name of Clipping File]. La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Footnote

1. [Author of Article (first name first, if applicable)], "[Name of Article]," [Publication], [Date of article], [page number (if applicable)], in clipping file [Name of Clipping File], La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Author of Article (last name only, if applicable)], "[Shortened Name of Article]," [page number, if applicable].

Ephemera File

Bibliographic

[Creator of Item from file (last name first, if applicable)]. [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"]. [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. In ephemera file [Name of Ephemera File]. La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Footnote

1. [Creator of Item from file (last name first, if applicable)], [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], in ephemera file [Name of Ephemera File], La Crosse Public Library Archives, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Creator of Item from file (last name only, if applicable)], [Item Type] (OR) "[Name of Item"], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].

• • •

Letters in Vertical and Ephemera Files

Bibliographic

[Creator of Letter] to [Who the Letter is Being Sent To]. [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. In [vertical OR ephemera] file [Name of Ephemera File]. [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

1. [Creator of Letter] to [Who the Letter is Being Sent To], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], in [vertical OR ephemera] file [Name of Ephemera File], [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Shortened Creator of Letter] to [Shortened Who the Letter is Being Sent To], [Date of item OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], [Name of Ephemera File].




Maps


With Publication Information

Bibliographic

[Creator (person) of Map (last name first)]. [Name of Map]. Map. [Map Number]. [Creator (institution or organization) of Map]. [Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [Date of Publication]. Call number [call number]. [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

1. [Creator (person) of Map (first name first)], [Name of Map], map, [Map Number], [Creator (institution or organization) of Map], ([Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [Date of Publication]), call number [call number], [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Creator (person) of Map (first name first)], [Name of Map], map.

• • •

Without Publication Information

Bibliographic

[Creator (person) of Map (last name first)]. Map of [what map depicts]. [Map Number]. [Year]. Call number [call number]. [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

[Creator (person) of Map (first name first)], Map of [what map depicts], [Map Number], [year], Call number [call number], [Name of Physical Repository], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Creator (person) of Map (first name first)], Map of [what map depicts], [year].




Newspaper or Magazine Articles


Bibliographic

[Author of Article (last name first, if applicable)]. "[Name of Article]." [Publication], [Date of article].

Footnote

1. [Author of Article (first name first, if applicable)], "[Name of Article]," [Publication], [Date of article], [page number, if applicable].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Author of Article (last name only, if applicable)], "[Shortened Name of Article]," [page number, if applicable].




Oral Histories


Bibliographic

[Interviewee (last name first)]. Interview by [Name of Interviewer (first name first)]. [Date of Interview]. [Method of accessing interview (e.g. transcript, audio recording, etc.)]. [Name of Oral History Collection]. [Name of Oral History Organization]. Housed at [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

1. [Interviewee (first name first)], interview by [Name of Interviewer (first name first)], [Date of Interview], [method of accessing interview (e.g. transcript, audio recording, etc.)], [page number or time in interview where cited information is found], [Name of Oral History Collection], [Name of Oral History Organization], housed at [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Interviewee (last name only)], interview, [Date of Interview], [method of accessing interview (e.g. transcript, audio recording, etc.)], [page number or time in interview where cited information is found].




Photographs


Known Photographers

Bibliographic

[Name of Photographer (last name first)]. [Caption on Photograph]. Photograph. [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)]. [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

1. [Name of Photographer (first name first)], [Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)], [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Name of Photographer (last name only)], [Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].

• • •

Unknown Photographers

Bibliographic

[Caption on Photograph]. Photograph. [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)]. [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

1. [Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)], [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].

• • •

Photographs from Digital Collections

Bibliographic

[Caption on Photograph]. Photograph. [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. Local Identifier: [local identifier]. [Digital Collection Name], [Digital Repository]. Submitted by [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository]. Accessed [Date of Access]. [permanent URL to resource].

Footnote

[Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"], local Identifier: [local identifier], [Digital Collection Name], [Digital Repository], submitted by [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository], accessed [Date of Access], [permanent URL to resource].

Subsequent Footnotes

[Caption on Photograph], photograph, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].

• • •

Postcards

Bibliographic

[Caption on Postcard]. Postcard. [Place of Creation]: [Creator of Postcard]. [Date of Postcard OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]. [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)]. [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Footnote

[Caption on Postcard], postcard ([Place of Creation]: [Creator of Postcard], [Date of Postcard OR write "n.d." for "not dated"]), [Collection Name], [Call Number], [Box Name & Number (if applicable)], [Folder Name & Number (if applicable)], [Physical Repository of Collection], [City of Repository], [State of Repository].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Caption on Postcard], postcard, [Date of Photograph OR write "n.d." for "not dated"].




Books


*Note: If you are citing a book that was self-published, simply put in "self-published" in place of the publisher.

Bibliographic

[Author (last name first)]. [Title of Book]. [Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published].

Footnote

[Author (first name first)], [Title of Book] ([Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published]), [page number(s)].

Subsequent Footnotes

[Author (last name only)], [Shortened Title of Book], [page number(s)].



SECONDARY SOURCES

For other secondary sources, more details about the following citations, or examples, visit The Chicago Manual of Style Online Citation Quick Guide


Books


*If you are citing a book that was self-published, simply put in "self-published" in place of the publisher.

Bibliographic

[Author (last name first)]. [Title of Book]. [Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published].

Footnote

[Author (first name first)], [Title of Book] ([Place of Publication]: [Publisher], [year published]), [page number(s)].

Subsequent footnotes

[Author (last name only)], [Shortened Title of Book], [page number(s)].




Journal Articles


*If there are multiple authors, list them in order of how they are listed in the article. For the Bibliographic entry, list the first author's last name first, then their first them. After that, list each other author first name first and last name second (e.g. "Smith, Jane, Jonathan Lingers, and Mao Xiong."). For the first Note entry, list all names with first name first ("Jane Smith, Jonathan Lingers, and Mao Xiong,"). For the subsequent Note entries, list only the last name of the first author ("Smith,").

Bibliographic

[Author (last name first)]. "[Title of Article]." [Title of Journal] [journal volume number], no. [journal issue number] ([Date of Publication]): [page numbers of full article]. [permanent URL if applicable].

Footnote

1. [Author (first name first)], "[Title of Article]," [Title of Journal] [journal volume number], no. [journal issue number] ([Date of Publication]): [page number(s)]. [permanent URL if applicable].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Author (last name only)], "[Shortened Title of Article]," [page number(s)].




News Articles and Magazines


Bibliographic

[Author of Article (last name first, if applicable)]. "[Name of Article]." [Publication], [Date of article].

Footnote

1. [Author of Article (first name first, if applicable)], "[Name of Article]," [Publication], [Date of article], [page number, if applicable].

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Author of Article (last name only, if applicable)], "[Shortened Name of Article]," [page number, if applicable].




Website Content


Bibliographic

[Author (last name first, if applicable)]. "[Heading or Title of Web Page]." [Section of Website]. [Publication Date OR Modified Date OR Accessed Date]. [permanent URL if applicable].

Footnote

1. [Author (first name first, if applicable)], "[Heading or Title of Web Page]."

Subsequent Footnotes

2. [Author (last name only, if applicable)], "[Shortened Heading or Title of Web Page]," [Section of Website], [Publication Date OR Modified Date OR Accessed Date], [permanent URL if applicable].