LA CROSSE HISTORY
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THE LA CROSSE AREA'S HISTORY, DIGITIZED

Archaeology


Resources

—Archaeology—


Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Turriff, Emily
Description:
During the 2000 excavations at the Krause site (47Lc41) in Onalaska, WI, archaeologists from the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center (MVAC) uncovered an earth oven feature. Oneota features are common regionally, but this feature (number 275) is different from other Oneota features. Most Oneota features in the La Crosse area are garbage or storage pits and can only offer a secondary context. Feature 275 is a stone-lined earth oven where the contents are believed to be in their primary context. Feature 275 is also unusual because of twenty different zones that appear to be separate areas of activity and use. The analysis of fish remains in this feature offers unique insights into the diet and subsistence of the Oneota people who were a pre-European agricultural society.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 12 (2009)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Subject:
Oneota Indians (Great Plains)
Oneota Indians (Great Plains) -- Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin
Creator:
Stevenson, Katherine Phyllis
Description:
Appendices that accompany a PhD study that focuses on Oneota subsistence behavior, and related aspects of social and settlement behavior, in the Driftless Area of western Wisconsin.
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Aurit, Amy
Description:
The Oneota were a prehistoric agricultural people who occupied the La Crosse area from A.D. 1300-1625. Unlike the major summer Oneota villages that have been excavated, the Swennes Upper Garden site (47Lc333) is located in an interior valley instead of on a terrace of the Mississippi River. Four seasons of excavations at the site have identified 29 features and provide a sample for analysis. This paper examines two specific research problems: the seasonality during which the site was occupied, and the specific phase(s) of occupation. Analysis of a sample of the plant and animal remains are used to evaluate what season(s) the site was occupied. Diagnostic decorated pottery is used to identify specific phase(s) in the Oneota culture and suggest if the site was from a single or multiple occupations. Two radiocarbon dates have been acquired from two different features to give the site specific dates. Due to the unique location of the Swennes Upper Garden site, this paper gives us an opportunity to identify some more poorly understood aspects of Oneota culture, such as identification of a winter occupation.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 10 (2007)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Borland, Kaitlyn
Description:
Excavations during the summer of 2007 at Cade 9 (47Ve625) in Vernon County, Wisconsin, revealed several features with diagnostic pottery from the Great Oasis culture. The Great Oasis culture is known to have extended from northwest Iowa to Nebraska, and has not been previously found in Wisconsin. A sample of the floral remains from these features was analyzed to determine the seasonality of the occupation, and wood charcoal was radiocarbon dated to an approximate time span of circa A.D 1040 +/- 30 (uncalibrated). The results suggest warm weather agriculture with no winter components.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 12 (2009)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Earth sciences
Geography
Creator:
Hamilton, Joseph S.
Description:
In archaeology geomorphic principles and analysis are helpful in site interpretation. The Solverson site is located on a shoulder position of a hillslope in an upland setting of the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin. Excavations in 2000 located a prehistoric quarry that produced several hundred flakes, cores, and debitage of Prairie du Chien (PdC) chert that appeared to be in situ. Analysis of two soil profiles revealed a profile sequence of A, E, Bt, and C horizons directly above dolomite bedrock. A prehistoric surface detected at 20-25cm below ground surface showed an increase in clay percentage and a decrease in silt and sand percentages. A similar pattern in artifact concentrations is also present from that investigation. Excavation continued in 2001 with the placement of another 1m x 2m unit and new research questions involving site formation processes, prehistoric quarrying activities, and an estimated date of occupation. This project addresses those topics.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 5 (2002)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Archaeology
Journals
Creator:
Letterly, Ryan
Description:
This Undergraduate Research Project was conducted to further the understanding of the archaeology in Timber Coulee, a tributary of Coon Creek. Timber Coulee is located approximately 20 to 25 miles east of La Crosse (Figure 1). The project consisted of systematic walkovers in cultivated fields and two extensive shovel testing projects. In addition, caves and rockshelters were investigated for archaeological remains and/or rock art. As a result of this survey 23 new archaeological sites have been discovered, ranging in time from late Paleo-Indian to late prehistoric Woodland cultures. A sample of lithic artifacts was collected from 21 of the 23 sites and 1 sample was gathered from a previously known site.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 1 (1998)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Karol, Amy
Description:
During recent years, the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center (MVAC) has acquired permission to look at a beautifully preserved bag from 47Lc84, a rockshelter located in La Crosse County, Wisconsin. The bag is tentatively dated to the Oneota cultural tradition (A.D. 1250-1650) based on pottery sherds associated with it. Nothing of its kind has been found archaeologically in this region before, owing mostly to poor preservation conditions. Due to its uniqueness, there is nothing to compare it to within the Oneota tradition. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of this bag, a cross-cultural study was undertaken. This paper examines separate sites in the American Midwest, as well as textile impressions that are preserved on pottery, the ethnohistoric and early historic record, and modern hand-weaving techniques to determine the textile tradition from which the bag may have emerged as well as how it was constructed.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 12 (2009)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Jones, Amanda
Description:
Oneota was a late Prehistoric group that settled in near modern-day La Crosse, WI around A.D.1300, bringing with material remains distinct from the previous Woodland tradition. They abandoned the La Crosse localities by A.D.1625. Archaeological excavations of their complex raised field systems and technologically-advanced plant storage pits has allowed us to learn a great deal about the plant portions of Oneota diet and the role animals played in Oneota subsistence. My research is a detailed analysis of the animal remains found in eight features (33, 55, 69, 78, 92, 97,102, and 108) during the 2012 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse archaeological field school from the Oneota site called Tremaine (47LC95). This study of faunal remains from a single Oneota site will be used to discuss Oneota subsistence and seasonality at Tremaine with to better understand Oneota adaptation to their environment.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 17 (2014)
Author:
Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
La Crosse (Wis.)--Antiquities
Wisconsin--Antiquities
Archaeological surveying--Wisconsin
La Crosse River Valley--Antiquities
Untied States
Wisconsin
La Crosse
Creator:
Robert F. Boszhardt
Dean G. (Dean Gordon) Wilder 1947-
Description:
forms part of the La Crosse River Valley Study
ocm21074367
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Geography
Earth sciences
Creator:
Leith, Luther
Description:
This project evaluated a buried soil at the Ernie Bank site, a Late Woodland occupation (A.D. 800 --A.D. 1050), in Vernon County Wisconsin. The site was analyzed for any cultural evidence, and to determine if the soil formed under prairie conditions. I conducted a particle size analysis, soil pH, total carbon (LOI), and percent organic carbon analysis to determine if this soil formed under prairie vegetation. Stratigraphic column, and soil profile samples were examined for micro-artifacts by screening the samples through a 1/4 inch screen and #10 sieve. By using soil color and texture I determined the soil horizon sequence as Ab, Bt, Bg. The upper 10 centimeters of the stratigraphic column represent historic slope wash. The information from the particle size, soil pH, total carbon (LOI), and percent organic carbon, shows a stable surface from 100-120centimeters, a period of flood deposition, and another stable surface at 160 centimeters. A combination of field research and laboratory analysis indicated that the buried soil containing artifacts was formed under prairie conditions.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 4 (2001)
Subject:
Oneota Indians (Great Plains) -- Wisconsin -- La Crosse County -- Antiquities
White-tailed deer -- Wisconsin -- La Crosse County
Animal remains (Archaeology) -- Wisconsin -- La Crosse County
Creator:
Jake Pfaffenroth
Description:
The Swennes Upper Garden Terrace site (47Lc333) in La Crosse County, Wisconsin has been the location of multiple excavations by the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse since 1995. Of the many late prehistoric Oneota pit-features discovered at the site, Feature 30 was found to contain several hundred white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bone fragments. These bones displayed characteristics indicating they had been systematically fractured in the production of "bone grease." Bone grease is obtained by boiling the fatty bone marrow out of the cancellous tissue of bones and is high in nutrients. Its production and use is documented ethnographically and archaeologically in various regions and climates. This paper examines the bone fragments from Feature 30 through quantitative analysis and the use of ethnographic, archaeological, and experimental literature, with the goal of interpreting the human processes resulting in their deposition within the feature.
Author:
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Subject:
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin
La Crosse County (Wis.) -- Antiquities
Mississippi River Valley -- Antiquities
Creator:
Gibon, Guy E.
Description:
A master's thesis in anthropology by Guy Edward Gibbon, 1966
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Archaeology
Journals
Sociology
Creator:
Martinek, Dain
Description:
Little is known about the food storage technology of the late prehistoric Oneota societies (AD 1000 to AD 1650 ) of the Upper Midwest. Aspects of Oneota storage pit forms, as found on archaeological sites in the Upper Mississippi Valley, indicate that they may have been similar to those used by some Plains agricultural peoples in early historic times, such as the Hidatsa of the Upper Missouri River Valley. This project, conducted during the winters of 1996-97 and 1997-98, tested four experimental maize (corn) storage pits, constructed according to ethnographically reported methods. Results indicate that this method of storage works very well, during a typical midwestern winter, and also during a winter that was unusually warm. Upon opening these storage pits most of the corn was found to be in good condition, with little evidence of mold, and with no signs of insect or rodent infestation. Germination tests indicated that up to 99% of the seed in some samples remained viable. Study of experimental storage pits will help to interpret the significance of pit features found in archaeological sites, such as the seasonality and length of occupation at a site, and the relationship between numbers of pits and population size.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 1 (1998)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Subject:
Oneota Indians (Great Plains) -- Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Wisconsin -- Antiquities
Creator:
Stevenson, Katherine Phyllis
Description:
A PhD dissertation that focuses on Oneota subsistence behavior, and related aspects of social and settlement behvior, in the Driftless Area of western Wisconsin. A separate volume of appendices is also available.
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Carr, Dillon
Description:
47 LC 480, the Skemp Site is located in eastern La Crosse County, Wisconsin. Based on surface artifacts found, its primary cultural association is with the Agate Basin period of the Late PaleoIndian tradition (ca. 10,500 -- 10,000 RCYBP). Fieldwork was conducted at the site in order to determine if cultural materials remained intact below the plowzone. Analysis of surface collected material was also conducted to aid in the interpretation of the site. The results of the field testing, and analysis of surface collected artifacts are presented here.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 4 (2001)
Author:
Wisconsin Historical Society
Creator:
Edward Brown
Description:
Part of the Wisconsin Historical Collections, volume VIII (1879)
"The Pictured Cave of LaCrosse Valley, near West Salem, Wisconsin" by Rev. Edward Brown, describes how the cave was discovered, and then how it was excavated and the artifacts removed. The remainder of the article describes and illustrates sixteen figures found on the cave walls, interpreting some of the animals (rabbits, bison, lynx, herons, hippopotamus, badger), humans, and stories. (10 pages)
Subject:
Goosetown (La Crosse, Wis.)
Architecture, Domestic--Wisconsin--La Crosse
Historic preservation--Wisconsin--La Crosse
Creator:
Lindsay Marshall
Description:
Goosetown Neighborhood is one of the oldest working class neighborhoods in La Crosse, Wisconsin. Archaeological investigations into La Crosse's past have revealed a long and interesting history. During a redevelopment project in the 1980s, a Phase I investigation on the Jacobus house located at 608 North Sixth Street was conducted. By looking through the information in 47-LC-13, and comparing it against the procedures which took place in saving an 1858 Greek Revival house previously located at 422 North Eighth Street, information can be gained about the similarities and differences of architecture within the neighborhood, as well as the development of cultural resource management and historic preservation practices within the city.
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Geography
Earth sciences
Creator:
Newman, Tiffany L.
Description:
The Gail Stone archaeological site, located in Trempealeau County, Wisconsin has added to our understanding of Paleo-Indian culture because it is one of the few unmixed Paleo-Indian fluted-point components in this region. Fluted points, endscrapers and other lithic artifacts found along a slope could represent a single short-term occupation for tool production. The location of artifacts on the slope of the terrace raises questions since Paleo-Indian occupations are not believed to have occurred on terrace slopes. This paper has sought answers on how Paleo-Indian peoples occupied the terrace through an interpretation of stratigraphy and site formation processes. Field and laboratory work to evaluate the site stratigraphy and terrace formation revealed the presence of a buried paleosurface over 2 meters below the present terrace surface. Evidence for the buried surface includes an eolian lag deposit and the presence of fossil ostracod shells associated with the lag deposit.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 4 (2001)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Archaeology
Creator:
Bailey, Eric
Description:
A number of Paleo-Indian artifacts found in Western Wisconsin lithic assemblages were observed to be made of an unidentified olive green colored chert. A macroscopic examination of these artifacts, and comparison with known possible sources suggested that the material might be Silurian Chert Type II from the Door Pennisula in eastern Wisconsin. Attributed analysis and comparison with lithic debris found at sites in that area supports this hypothesis.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 5 (2002)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Sociology
Archaeology
Creator:
Jirasek, Rachel Marie
Description:
This paper compares statistical and visual patterns represented in decorated Oneota pottery from the La Crosse Locality. The study addresses the question of type definitions based on quantitative measurements of visual attributes versus statistical analysis of these and newly recorded attribute data. The sample used for this analysis is from the Krause site (47Lc41), La Crosse County, Wisconsin. Particular attention was focused on handles, as previous research is lacking in this component of Oneota vessels. Past research has focused on handle attachment location and not on specific attributes of the handles themselves such as length, width, thickness and arc ratio. To provide a broad sample, additional handles were examined from the Olson (47Lc76), Pammel Creek (47Lc61) and Valley View (47Lc34) sites. These villages are the type-sites for a sequence of three Oneota phases at La Crosse. In addition to handles, this study considered rim decoration, decorative design elements and motifs, vessel size, and other vessel attributes from the Krause site assemblage. The compiled data was subject to multi and univariate statistical analysis using SPSS, revealing patterns that suggest typological groupings. These were then compared with the traditional type/phase sequence for this locality.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 5 (2002)
Author:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Subject:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse -- Students -- Research -- Periodicals
College students -- Research -- United States -- Periodicals
Journals
Geography
Earth sciences
Creator:
Beauchaine, Anthony J.
Werdemann, Elizabeth
Description:
The Cade Archaeological District located in the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Bad Axe River of Western Wisconsin has 17 recorded prehistoric sites. These sites include both habitation sites and effigy mounds. The effigies are located on landforms such as steep hillsides, toe slopes, and valley bottoms. The goal of this research was to try to locate any significant archaeological formations by using an Electromagnetic (EM) ground conductivity meter. Without implementing other geophysical survey techniques, or excavating areas of interest, it is difficult to absolutely identify culturally emplaced material. While it is uncertain as to whether or not our results identify any culturally emplaced materials, there are significant conclusions about the geomorphology of the area that might be interpreted from our data. The nature of EM ground conductivity allows for much speculation in terms of the resulting data.
Published as part of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 9 (2006)
Subject:
Lower Sand Lake Site (Wis.)
Woodland Indians--Wisconsin--La Crosse County -- Antiquities
Pottery, Prehistoric--Wisconsin--La Crosse County
Excavations (Archaeology)--Wisconsin--La Crosse County
Creator:
Robin Heier
Description:
The Lower Sand Lake Site (47Lc45) was first excavated in 1984 by archaeologists from the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center (MVAC) with additional excavations during the 2008 field season, by MVAC archaeologists and students from University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. The Lower Sand Lake is a multicomponent prehistoric site located on a ridge and swale along County Trunk Highway S in La Crosse County, Wisconsin. Recovered artifacts included thousands of pieces of Woodland grit-tempered pottery. For this project I am identifying the ceramic types to illustrate a local sequence of Woodland occupations from Early through the Late Woodland, with an analytical emphasis on ceramics from the Late Woodland period. In addition, I discuss the evidence for interaction between the Late Woodland and Mississippian periods, based on the types of ceramics identified and their distribution across the site.